A+ 220-1002: Day 12: The Internet & Virtualization

  1. A+ Certification
  2. A+ Certification Syllabus (220-1001, 2220-1002)
  3. A+ 220-1001: Day 1: Intro, Resources & the Test
  4. A+ 220-1001: Day 2: CPUs
  5. A+ 220-1001: Day 3: RAM
  6. A+ 220-1001: Day 4: Firmware, Motherboards & Power Supplies
  7. A+ 220-1001: Day 5: Disks & Mass Storage
  8. A+ 220-1001: Day 6: Peripherals & PC Builds
  9. A+ 220-1001: Day 7: OS Operations, User Management & OS Maintenance
  10. A+ 220-1001: Day 8: Users, Permissions and System Management
  11. A+ 220-1002: Day 9: The Command Line & OS Troubleshooting
  12. A+ 220-1002: Day 10: Displays & Networking Basics
  13. A+ 220-1002: Day 11: LANs: Ethernet & WiFi
  14. A+ 220-1002: Day 12: The Internet & Virtualization
  15. A+ 220-1002: Day 13: Portable & Mobile Computing
  16. A+ 220-1002: Day 14: Mobile Administration & Printing
  17. A+ 220-1002: Day 15: Security & Operations
  18. A+ 220-1002: Day 16: Review & Test Preparation

The Internet

The internet is the physical network connecting “everything” (sort of) into one network. It consists of routers, servers, wiring and fiber-optics:

The Internet
The Internet

The World Wide Web is the collection of websites (and other services) that run on top of the internet.

The World Wide Web
The World Wide Web

Internet Tiers


Layers 1 and 2: Underlying Connections to the Internet

Dial-up (POTS, PSTN) using a modem (uses PPP)

ISDN using 2 B channels and 1 D channel

DSL – symmetric vs asymmetric, ATM vs Ethernet (uses PPPoA or PPPoE) –> max 18,000 feet from nearest CO

T1 – this is 24 telephone lines in a bundle. (24 Bearer channels)

Cable (uses DOCSIS)

Optic (FTTN, FTTP)

WiFi (it’s wireless, but it’s not really called “wireless”)

Line-of-Sight Wireless

Cellular (correctly called “wireless”)
-Mobile hotspot


Connecting Private Networks to Public Networks

NAT (network address translation)



The A+ doesn’t require a deep knowledge of virtualization, but you should know the following, at least:

  • What a VMM is
  • What a hypervisor is
  • Type 1 hypervisors
  • Type 2 hypervisors

We’ll be using virtual machines (VMs) in this class, on the open-source VirtualBox platform. Here’s what you need to do, assuming you’re on Windows:

  1. Download and install 7zip so you can handle .7z files. As with all software, download it from the source, not from a mass download site.
  2. Download and install Oracle VirtualBox. Select the version for “Windows Hosts”, of course.
  3. Go to a site you’ll learn to love, OSBoxes:
    Click on “VM Images”, then select “VirtualBox Images”.
    Download Ubuntu: plain, vanilla Ubuntu, not “Ubuntu MATE” or anything else. Just Ubuntu.
  4. Now watch this video, and do as the narrator does, EXCEPT:
    –>**Put your virtual machines, each in a separate folder, in C:\Users\Public\VirtualBoxVMs **<– Notice there are no spaces!!! No spaces!!! No spaces!!!

Type 1 Hypervisors, Type 2 Hypervisors, Docker Containers, Emulators like QEMU, etc.


Textbook Time

Chapters 21 an 22