A+ 220-1001: Day 7: OS Operations, User Management & OS Maintenance

  1. A+ Certification
  2. A+ 220-1001: Day 1: Intro, Resources & the Test
  3. A+ 220-1001: Day 2: CPUs
  4. A+ 220-1001: Day 3: RAM
  5. A+ 220-1001: Day 4: Firmware, Motherboards & Power Supplies
  6. A+ 220-1001: Day 5: Disks & Mass Storage
  7. A+ 220-1001: Day 6: Peripherals & PC Builds
  8. A+ 220-1001: Day 7: OS Operations, User Management & OS Maintenance
  9. A+ 220-1001: Day 8: Catch-up & Review
  10. A+ 220-1002: Day 9: The Command Line & OS Troubleshooting
  11. A+ 220-1002: Day 10: Displays & Networking Basics
  12. A+ 220-1002: Day 11: LANs: Ethernet & WiFi
  13. A+ 220-1002: Day 12: The Internet & Virtualization
  14. A+ 220-1002: Day 13: Portable & Mobile Computing
  15. A+ 220-1002: Day 14: Mobile Administration & Printing
  16. A+ 220-1002: Day 15: Security & Operations
  17. A+ 220-1002: Day 16: Review & Test Preparation

OS Operations

The Registry

regedit 

regedt32

reg

regsvr32

Hives

Two for the machine:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE (generic, also called HKLM)

HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG (the current config, duh)

Two for users:

HKEY_USERS (all of them)

HKEY_CURRENT_USER (the logged-in user)

One for software:

HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT

Booting Windows

Either:

BIOS/MBR drive’s boot record points to the bootmgr

GPT points directly to bootmgr

The bootmgr uses a BCD (boot configuration data) to findĀ  and boot the right partition.

BCD is edited with the bcdedit command

Microsoft Utilities

msconfig

Task Manager

msinfo32

MMC

System Restore – Disabled by default in Win 10!

Restore Points

Task Manager

Ctl – Alt – Del + click Task Manager

OR

Ctl – Shift – Esc

OR

type taskman in the runline

Ending and starting processes

Sysinternals

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/downloads/sysinternals-suite

Mark Russinovich

Process Explorer

Installing Sysinternals

echo %PATH%

Your PATH is a list of folders. When you issue a command, the OS looks in these folders for the command (usually an executable file). System32 is in your PATH.

Download Sysinternals, unzip it, GO INTO THE RESULTING FOLDER, copy the files, then change to System32 and PASTE. Do NOT paste the unzipped folder – only its contents.

Services

services.msc
net start service_name
net stop service_name
tasklist
taskkill task_number

Resource Monitor

At the Runline:

resource monitor

Performance Monitor

perfmon.exe

Managing Users and Permissions

root == System user

Authentication and Authorization

NIST Digital Identity Guidelines –
https://pages.nist.gov/800-63-3/sp800-63b.html

On Password Complexity: Sorry! –
https://gizmodo.com/the-guy-who-invented-those-annoying-password-rules-now-1797643987

Groups

Administrators

Power Users

Users

Guests

lusermgr.msc

NTFS Permissions

Folders vs Files

Full Control

Modify

Read & Execute

List Folder Contents (folders only)

Read

Write

Inheritance

Linux & Mac Permissions

User, Group and World

r = 4
w = 2
x = 1

chown

chmod

Sharing Folders (Windows)

Sharing tab

Security tab

The Sharing Wizard

Administrative Shares

Encryption (Windows)

EFS (for one folder)

Bitlocker (for the whole hard drive)

Security Policy (Windows)

secpol.msc

Windows User Account Control

UAC

Vista – On or Off

Win 7 – 4 levels – default is the second-from-top option

OS Maintenance

Patches, Updates

Windows Disk Maintenance

Scandisk – DOS, Win 95, Win 98, Win ME

chkdsk

Disk Defragmenter – Win 7

Optimize drives – Win 8 and later

macOS Disk Maintenance

Disk Utility

Linux Disk Maintenance

fsck

Scheduling Tasks

Windows Task Scheduler

Linux Task Scheduling

cron 
at

macOS Task Scheduling

launchd

Backups

Backup and Restore – Win 7

ntbackup

File History – Win 8/10

Time Machine – Mac

Software Installation

Microsoft Store

macOS App Store

Linux App Installation:

apt
yum

Device Manager

Performance Options

Textbook Time

Chapters 12, 13 and 14