Linux User Profiles and Paths

  1. Using the Linux Command Line
  2. The Linux Directory Tree
  3. Linux Shells and Basic Commands
  4. Changing Passwords
  5. Your Home Directory
  6. User Information
  7. Linux User Default Files
  8. Linux User Profiles and Paths
  9. sudo and su –
  10. Listing Files and Going Deep Into Filesystems
  11. Linux: Creating and Deleting Directories and Files

Examine root’s user profile and PATH characteristics.

Become root:

sudo su -

Enter the command:


as root, and you’ll see your IP address (among other things). Just to be sure, run:


And while you’re at it, check your (root’s) group memberships:


Now leave root:


Log back in as studenth

At the login prompt, log in as studenth:

login: studenth

password: student

Now compare studenth’s characteristics

Type the commands:




What do you get?

A Standard User

You’re currently logged in as studenth.

Your default permissions and environment are MUCH more restrictive than root’s.

And your PATH is different.

Finding that command

Enter the command:

whereis ifconfig

What do you get?

Running ifconfig as studenth

ifconfig won’t run directly for studenth because the command (actually, the program run by the command) isn’t in the PATH of studenth.

ifconfig WILL run if you specify its location:


Now try this with useradd

Still logged in as studenth, first find the useradd command (program):

whereis useradd

Now type the command using its full path.

Explain what you get.

Make sure you correctly called the command from its real location.

Why it doesn’t work

studenth was not CREATED as a root-group user.

studenth does NOT have the same rights as root.

Add to your PATH

Now we’re going to add to studenth’s PATH environment variable:

set PATH=${PATH}:/sbin

Check the result using echo:

echo $PATH

Run this command:


Does it work for you now?