A+ 220-1001: Day 3: Firmware, Motherboards & Power Supplies

  1. A+ Certification
  2. A+ 220-1001: Day 1: Intro, Resources & the Test
  3. A+ 220-1001: Day 2: CPUs
  4. A+ 220-1001: Day 2: RAM
  5. A+ 220-1001: Day 3: Firmware, Motherboards & Power Supplies
  6. A+ 220-1001: Day 4: Disks & Mass Storage
  7. A+ 220-1001: Day 5: Peripherals & PC Builds
  8. A+ 220-1001: Day 6: Windows Operations, User Management & Windows Maintenance
  9. A+ 220-1001: Day 7: The Command Line & Troubleshooting
  10. A+ 220-1001: Day 8: Displays & Networking
  11. A+ 220-1002: Day 9: Ethernet & WiFi
  12. A+ 220-1002: Day 10: The Internet & Virtualization
  13. A+ 220-1002: Day 11: Portable & Mobile Computing
  14. A+ 220-1002: Day 12: Mobile Administration & Printing
  15. A+ 220-1002: Day 13: Security & Operations
  16. A+ 220-1002: Day 14:
  17. A+ 220-1002: Day 15:

Firmware

BIOS and CMOS

 

UEFI

ROM

Motherboards

AT

ATX

BTX

ITX

NLX

Slots

ISAhttps://www.google.com/search?q=isa+slots

PCIhttps://www.google.com/search?q=pci+slots,

AGPhttps://www.google.com/search?q=agp+slot

PCI-Xhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PCI-X ,
Google Search: PCI-X ,
Google Images: Closeup of PCI-X

PCIehttps://www.google.com/search?q=pcie ,
https://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/pcie-definition,5754.html

Old IO: serial, parallel, PCI, old USB, IDE, SATA, ethernet, audio, CMOS

New, fast IO: PCIe (PCI Express), HyperTransport, Infinity Fabric

How Memory Controllers Used to Work

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Front-side_bus

How Memory Controller Buses Work Now

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HyperTransport

https://wccftech.com/amds-infinity-fabric-detailed/

PCI

PCI was the “new” bus that replaced the ISA bus.

It functions like a network switch: every device gets full bus speed, a totally separate communication bus, and “plug and play” auto-configuration.

PCI slots run at 33mhz, 32bits bandwidth, for a total bandwidth (per device) of 133MBps.

There ARE 66mhz PCI buses, though these are rare.

And there ARE 5v and 3.3v PCI slots (which accounts for the different frequencies).

There are also 64bit PCI buses, which use a longer slot: PCI-X.

Beyond PCI

PCI-X (PCI Expanded)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PCI-X

PCIe (PCI Express)

Lanes: x1, x2, x4, x8, x16

v1, v2, v3, v4

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PCI_Express

–> Note that some PCIe lanes may be built into the CPU. Some of these may be used for core interconnects. Other PCIe lanes may be provided externally from the frontside bus (IO) controller.

IDE/ATA and SATA

Old ribbon-cable IDE (ATA) drives ran at 33MBps, and used a 40-wire cable.

Later generations ran at 66, 100 and 133 MBps, and required an 80-wire cable (to prevent cross-talk).

First-gen SATA ran at 150MBps, so it wasn’t much of an increase, though management was much easier. You can have SATA RAID, but not IDE RAID.

SATA-2 runs at 300MBps, and SATA-3 runs at 600MBps.

M.2 Slot Drives

M.2 slots can be used for SSDs, wifi or wireless cards, or any accessory that needs big bandwidth.

M.2 slots can be EITHER:
SATA
or
NVME

–> A SATA SSD in an M.2 slot will max out at SATA speeds, i.e. 600MBps maximum.

M.2 slots connect on the back end to either 2 or 4 PCIe lanes (obviously 4 is better).

–> An NVME SSD in an M.2 slot will be hugely faster than SATA, i.e. up to 3500MBps!

https://www.velocitymicro.com/blog/nvme-vs-m-2-vs-sata-whats-the-difference/

https://www.pcguide.com/tips/nvme-vs-m-2-vs-sata/

Connectors

http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/itdojo/pop-quiz-computer-ports-and-connectors/2340

Power Supplies

Switching, motherboard interfaces, plugs and maintenance

12v, 5v, 3.3v, 12v ground, 5v ground

Dual-legged or multi-legged

Modular power supplies

20/24-pin motherboard power plug

Molex plug

SATA plug

Berg plug

PCIe power plugs (6 and 8 wire)

Textbook Time

Chapters 5, 6 and 7